Gallipoli


Australian War Memorial Dawn Service

The morning air is crisp, there is little to no wind. It is not as cold as predicted thanks to overnight cloud cover. A lone figure works his way along the busy road towards the memorial. Cars are zipping by in groups of ten or twenty. Still he feels very alone, on this pilgrimage to the memorial.

Then others in small groups start their pilgrimages, both from abode and vehicle, also towards the memorial. Soon these groups start to merge, intermingle, and soon are so great the people are almost forced to walk on the busy road. The groups approach the memorial grounds. Three Navy officers leading one large group suddenly change direction to their left, like it was rehearsed, when confronted by a large pine tree.

Suddenly, the group splits in two,  those who choose to be lead follow the officers, the others spear right ….. now the race is on. The group to the left soon realise their mistake when confronted by barricades – or is it entanglements? – and quickly veer right to rejoin the others. The barricades are almost maze like in an attempt to funnel the groups (into a crowd) on to the memorial parade grounds.

The crowd is through the first set of barricades!! Their momentum propels them across their first objective – the road to the car park – adjusting slightly left for the advance onto the second set of barricades. They probe the defences and suddenly a weakness is exploited. The crowd stream through into the open ground behind. Spreading out, working their way up the small hill in their way. They quickly realise their second objective – the crest of the hill – is also heavily defended (by volunteers) and barricaded.

The pace slows as the crowd consolidates for the final central push. They crest the hill, trying to work their way past the volunteers, to take the much sought after high-ground. It soon becomes clear that previous waves have already occupied these positions. The crowd scatters, vying for any small space to the left or right they can. Some don’t make it. They end up being herded down onto the parade ground – the final objective – where crowds from the other sectors have also converged.

Everyone has arrived to the final objective on-time just as stories of ANZAC’s are being re-told by young and old. Now we must all hurry-up-and-wait and mark time to the beat of the TV camera’s. Ten long minutes go by before the commemoration begins, the crowd who were quietly murmuring now fall silent. Hymns are sung which glorify our gracious dead. The Last Post sounds, everyone looks to the memorial wall for the source of the bugle call. A minutes silence to honour the dead. Then the Rouse and the Reveille are played.

The crowd holds its breath, not flinching until released by the master of ceremonies. The crowd is thanked for it’s attendance, and as if they are all of one mind, they work their way back from whence they came. The crowd slowly works their way back down the previously captured ground. They filter back into their abodes and vehicles, breaking into smaller and smaller groups until there are but a few lone figures are traipsing along the once again busy road.

Finally, there is but one lone figure slowly walking along the busy road. Reflecting on the morning’s events. Reflecting on the sacrifices of all our men and women who have served. Reflecting on what the ANZAC spirit truly means.

Lest We Forget

Photos


WARNING: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander readers are warned that the following blog post contains the first name of a deceased person.

So violent a squall was sweeping past the ship at this moment, that no sound was heard of the usual splash, which made the sailors allege that their young favourite never touched the water at all, but was at once carried off in the gale to his final resting place!
Herman Melville, on a sea burial in 1843

The practice of burial at sea (or in water), in varying forms, was adopted by many cultures throughout history. Others, like the Vikings, practiced land based cremation of sailors and their ships and either scattered the ashes at sea or pushed the still alight ship out into the water. The practice of actually wrapping a sailors body in a shroud of a ships sail (or sleeping hammock) and weighing it down with lead shot (or cannon balls) began with British seafarers, in particular the British Navy, whilst the French or Spanish would traditionally keep the remains until a land cemetery could be located.

In my previous posts (Euripides 1914Roll of Honour – Burial at Sea) I wrote about the first casualties of the 3rd Battalion for the war, and some of those from the Gallipoli campaign, who succumbed to their wounds, or sickness, and were buried at sea.

This post will seek to list all of the soldiers of the 3rd Battalion now identified as having been buried at sea, and where possible, the burial location and name of vessel they were on at the time of their passing. The soldiers names listed here appear on: the Lone Pine Memorial, Gallipoli; the Chatby Memorial, Egypt; and the Hollybrook Memorial, England.

Turkey – Gallipoli Campaign – All names appear on Lone Pine Memorial

SS Caledonia
1493 Private BALDWIN, Harry
His service record states that he died, on 07 August 1915, from effects of abdominal wound received in action and was buried at sea by E.T. Clarke between Gallipoli and Alexandria.

SS Delta
2253 Private TREFFONE, Harold Miller
His Red Cross file states that he died, on 08 August 1915, of wounds and was buried at sea.

939 Private HERRING, Edward Edgar
His service record states that he died, on 09 August 1915, of effects of gun shot wounds (GSW) to throat, thorax and abdomen received in action and was buried at sea by Reverend H.S. Marshall between Mudros and Alexandria .

1336 Corporal HAUA, Andrew Charles
His service record states that he died, on 11 August 1915, of effects of gun shot wounds (GSW) to chest received in action and was buried at sea by Reverend H.S. Marshall between Mudros and Alexandria.

1753 Sergeant HERON, William
His service record states that he died, on 11 August 1915, of effects of gun shot wounds (GSW) to left shoulder and thigh received in action and was buried at sea by Reverend H.S. Marshall between Mudros and Alexandria.

SS Derflinger
911 Private McGUIRK, Thomas Alexander
His service record states that he died, on 28 April 1915, of wounds received in action and was buried at sea by Reverend E Mc??? Brown between Gallipoli and Alexandria.

1171 Private REYNOLDS, Frederick
His service record states that he died, on 28 April 1915, of wounds received in action and was buried at sea.

323 Private EATHER, John
His Red Cross file states that he drowned in the first landing in Gallipoli. There is a first hand account in the file of his drowning given by his squad mate 382 WELCH. Interestingly, this appears to be the only 3rd Battalion soldier who drowned during the landings who’s body was not subsequently recovered.

77 Private WILLIS, Arthur Joseph
His service record states that he died, on 29 April 1915, of wounds received in action and was buried at sea by Reverend A.E. Talbot.

712 Private CHEAL, Edwin Harold
His service record states that he died, on 30 April 1915, of wounds received in action and was buried at sea by Chaplin A.E. Talbot

1392 Private VAGG, Stewart Parnell
Both his Red Cross file and service record state that he died, on 30 April 1915, of wounds and was buried at sea by Reverend A.E. Talbot.

SS Devanha
1641 Private WIGGINS, Albert George
His service record states that he died, on 09 August 1915, of wounds received in action, however, it also states that he was taken ashore at Anzac for burial.

HS Dongola
482 Sergeant HOLDAWAY, William James
Both his Red Cross File and service record state that he died, on 04 May 1915, of wounds and was buried at sea between Sedd el Baher and Gaba Tepe by Rev P.W. Clarkson.

SS Dunluce Castle
1869 Private AITKIN, Frank Keith
His service record states that he died, on 07 August 1915, from effects of gun shot wounds (GSW) received in action and was buried at sea.

2266 Private STEWART, Robert Arthur
His service record states that he died, on 07 August 1915, of wounds and was buried at sea.

2188 Private VILES, William James
His service record states that he died, on 07 August 1915, of effects of gunshot wounds (GSW) to the abdomen received in action and was buried at sea by Reverend A Maxwell.

1859 Private McGREGOR, James
His service record states that he died, on 08 August 1915, of effects of gun shot wounds (GSW) to the head received in action and was buried at sea by Reverend A Maxwell.

1771 Private MILLER, Thomas
His service record states that he died, on 08 August 1915, of effects of gun shot wounds (GSW) to the thigh received in action and was buried at sea near Malta.

1301 Sergeant DAVIS, David John Reginald
His service record states that he died, on 10 August 1915, from effects of gun shot wounds (GSW) to thigh received in action and was buried at sea.

131 Private HAWORTH, Benjamin
His service record states that he died, on 10 August 1915, from effects of abdominal and thigh wound received in action and was buried at sea by E.T. Clarke between Gallipoli and Alexandria.

1387 Private LARKING, Cyril Frederick
His service record states that he died, on 10 August 1915, from effects of gun shot wounds (GSW) to abdomen received in action and was buried at sea by Reverend A. Maxwell.

2159 Private LEWIS, Arthur Dudley
His service record states that he died, on 10 August 1915, from effects of gun shot wounds (GSW) to arm and was buried at sea by Reverend A. Maxwell.

HS(SS) Galeka
1483 Sergeant CAVILL, Walter William
His service record states he died, on 25 April 1915, from wounds received in action whilst on board HS Galkea. However, there is a note in his record which also states he was buried at Walkers Ridge. There is no confirmation he was buried at sea.

950 Private LOGAN, William Frederick
His red cross file states that he died, on 25 April 1915, of wounds and was buried at sea.

SS Gascon
Captain DOUGLAS, William Bowman
His service record states he died, on 05 May 1915, of wounds received in action and was buried at sea by Commander W.F. Stanley R.N.R.

Lieutenant CADELL, Thomas Leonard
His service record states that he died, on 22 June 1915, of wounds received in action and was buried at sea off Gaba Tepe.

2022 Private SMITH, James
His service record states that he died of wounds, on 25 June 1915 and was buried at sea.

157 Private MACLURE, Valentine Murray
His service record states that he died, on 07 July 1915, from effects of wounds received in action and was buried at sea by Reverend C.H. Mayne between Gallipoli and Alexandria.

1340 Private HAGUE, Henry
His Red Cross file states that he died of Pneumonia, on 17 July 1915, and was buried at sea. Hi service record states died of pneumonia, on 17 July 1915, and was buried at sea near Malta. His service record also states buried 3 miles of Gaba Tepe by Reverend C.H. Mayne.

1936 Private DAVIES, Frederick James
His service record states that he died, on 20 July 1915, of Gun Shot Wounds (GSW) to the chest which he received in action and was buried at sea near Malta.

576 Driver TAYLOR, James
His service record states that he died, on 23 July 1915, of wounds and buried at sea.

1594 Private WILLIAMSON, Henry
His service record states that he died, on 23 July 1915, of Gun Shot Wounds (GSW) to the chest which he received in action and was buried at sea.

1519 Private COOPER, Hugh
His service record states that he died, on 31 August 1915, of effects of Gun Shot Wounds (GSW) to right forearm and left leg and was buried at sea by Rev. C. Mayne. This is the only service record that was found to have recorded a longitude and latitude for the burial location, Lat. 35° 1N, Long. 27° 44E, which is located off the east coast of Crete.

2343 Private DRAIN, Edward
His service record states that he died, on 11 September 1915, from effects of Gun Shot Wounds (GSW) to the chest and was buried by Reverend E. Hughes between Gallipoli and Alexandria.

SS Gloucester Castle
771 Private PATTON Eric Wyatt
His service record states that he died, on 09 May 1915, of wounds received in action and was buried at sea by Captain T.H. Wildford between Gallipoli and Alexandria.

SS Guildford Castle
1513 Private BOURKE, James
His service record states that he died, on 14 August 1915, from effects of bomb wounds received in action and was buried at sea by Chief Officer C.N. Bickford.

SS Lutzow
1569 Private POWER, William Jeffrey
His service record states that he died, on 07 May 1915, of wounds received in action and was buried at sea.

HS Maheno
2146 Private HILL Frederick William
His service record states that he died, on 03 September 1915, from effects of shrapnel wounds to shoulder, neck and spine received in action and was buried at sea by Major Cyril J. Griffiths.

HS Rewa
Captain MACFARLANE, Edward
His service record states that he died, on 02 August 1915, from effects of gunshot wounds (GSW) to head and was buried at sea by Reverend V.L. Kelan(??).

1109 Private CHARLTON, Matthew Mark
His service record states that he died, on 17 August 1915, from effects of gun shot wounds (GSW) to the neck received in action and was buried at sea by Rev. V.L. Keelan(??) R.N.

2156 Private NORRIS, Frank (a.k.a MORRIS)
His service record states that he died, on 03 August 1915, from effects of gun shot wounds (GSW) to the neck and was buried at sea by Rev. V.L. Keelan.

HS Seang Choon
980 Private TUDENHAM, George Frederick
His service record states that he died, on 30 April 1915, from effects of wounds received in action and was buried at sea by A Sullivan(??).

SS Sicilia
1845 Private WEBSTER, Arthur William
His service record states that he died, on 11 August 1915, of effects of gun shot wounds (GSW) to the mouth received in action and was buried at Sea by Reverend E Teal between Gallipoli and Alexandria.

HS Somali
1099 Private BRENNAN, William Gregory
His service records states that he died, on 24 April 1915, of gun shot wounds (GSW) to the head received in action and was buried at sea off Gaba Tepe. However, his service record also states “Buried in Valley of Death by Rev. McKenzie”.

SS Soudan
1385 Private SHARP, John
His service record states he died, on 26 April 1915, from effects of wounds received in action. His record states that originally died on a HMT vessel (name is not readable) and transferred to the Soudan for burial at sea by Rev. J. McPhee(??).

Second Lieutenant BURLEY, Leslie James
His service record states that he died, on 20 May 1915, of wounds received in action and was buried at sea.

583 Private MURRAY, Charles
His service record states that he died, on 20 May 1915, of wounds received in action and was buried at sea.

794 Private WILSON, Edgar Ralph
His service record states he died, on 21 May 1915, of wounds received in action and was buried at sea.

1546 Private EGAN, Patrick
His Red Cross file shows considerable confusion as to circumstances of death. His service record states that he died, on 25 May 1915, from wounds received in action. There is no confirmation that he buried at sea.

1127 Private HAYMAN, Spencer Alexander
His service record states that he died, on 25 April 1915, from wounds received in action. There is no confirmation that he buried at sea.

No vessel recorded
373 Lance Corporal SMITH, Harry Joseph Sinclair
His service record states that he died, on 23 June 1915, of wounds and was buried at sea by Rev. L. Warner 3 miles off Gaba Tepe.

1132 Private HEAD, John
He died on 29 June 1915. No Service Record or Red Cross file found.

Egypt (Chatby Memorial)

HMAT Euripides (A14)
147 Private KENDAL, Varley Haddon
Refer Euripides 1914 blog post

295 Private LOWE, John Selby
Refer Euripides 1914 blog post

HMAT Orsova (A67)
2501 Private DALY, Augustine
His service record states that he died, on 02 August 1915, of pneumonia and was buried at sea.

HMAT Aeneas (A60)
4360 Private DAVIES, Alfred Lovney
His service record states that he died, on 29 December 1915, of pneumonia and was buried at sea.

HMAT Themistocles (A32)
1141 Private KEVIN, David Henry
His service record states that he died, on 21 January 1915, of measles and pneumonia and was buried at sea, en route to Aden.

England (Hollybrook Memorial)

HMAT Ceramic (A40)
6479 Private BURTON, Victor Raymond
His service record states that died, on 16 Novmeber 1916, of sickness and was buried at sea. His record also states that his was the only death on the voyage.

HMAT Benalla (A24)
6977 Private COMBO, Benjamin
His service record states that he died, on 29 November 1916, of sickness and was buried at sea.

7049 Private OSBORNE, Horace Bowden
His service record states that he died, on 29 November 1916, of sickness and was buried at sea.

HMAT Clan Macgillivray (A46)
7359 Private IRWIN, Arthur Francis
His service record states the outcome of a Court of Inquiry into his disappearance was that he accidently drowned at sea on 15 July 1917. However, his disappearance appears to have occurred not long after he was “medically discharged” whilst still underway on the voyage to England. Click here to review his service record in full.

Interestingly, the one thing that all these men have in common is the reluctance of the military of the time to proactively inform relatives that their son had died, and was buried, at sea. With the exception of a few, all of the initial notices to relatives/official contacts fail to mention the “location” of their burial, I suspect mainly because they were unable to fall back on the “missing” category normally employed. If a few cases the actual circumstances of their burial location were only revealed after much poking and prodding via written correspondence.

Sources:
Desert Column, Australian Military History of the early 20th century, His Majesty’s Australian Transports [HMAT] Ships, http://alh-research.tripod.com/ships_lh.htm

History of Death, Water Burials, History Channel UK, http://www.history.co.uk/study-topics/history-of-death/water-burials

Official History of the Australian Army Medical Services, 1914-1918, Volume 1 – Gallipoli, Palestine and New Guinea (2nd Edition, 1938), Part 1 – The Gallipoli Campaign, Chapter IX – The Landing: Lines of Communication, http://static.awm.gov.au/images/collection/pdf/RCDIG1069908–1-.PDF

This time two years ago I wrote a post about the experiences of the 3rd Battalion AIF on board the Euripides, as it sailed from Sydney to Egypt via Western Australia.

Two days ago I received in the mail a very rare item which is related to this historic voyage. I have been unable to locate any information anywhere about this item. It would appear that even the Australian War Memorial may not have one of these in their collection.

It is a small pamphlet titled Australian Imperial Expeditionary Force – List of Transports – Conveying the First Contingent to Leave Australia – 1914 which lists all of the Troopships (separated into four divisions: Division No. I; Division No. II; Division No. III; and New Zealanders) and their escort warships.

 

Whilst it would appear that this pamphlet may not have belonged to a soldier of the 3rd Battalion AIF, it does appear that these may have been handed out to those who were on the voyage upon their arrival in Egypt. The reasoning behind this thinking is the markings on the third and fourth pages of the pamphlet.

There is a small “X” (written in pencil) alongside the vessel named [HMAT] Omrah in the division III group and there is a personalised message written on the back Egypt Alexandria Dec 10th 1914 ___ ___, with the last two words proving difficult to decipher.

If anyone has any thought’s as to what the last two words might be I’d love to hear from you so please leave a comment below.

Gallipoli – 95th Anniversary – 25 April 2010

Lone Pine Dawn Service

Prologue
The Hon Alan Griffin MP, Minister for Veterans’ Affairs.

“Though Private John Simpson Kirkpatrick (the man with the donkey) is best known, many other soldiers at Gallipoli acted with selfless devotion and duty to their fellows.

One such man was Private Edward Joseph Smalley, a stretcher bearer with D-Company, 3rd Battalion. He was from Sydney, 36 years old, a railway worker who was married with a young son.

His mates called him the ‘Gunga Din’ of the battalion, after the ever-present, tireless water-bearer in the Kipling poem of the same name.

The 3rd Battalion’s history described him:

He was unassuming – a square-faced, determined-looking chap, practically unknown outside his own company … He worked for weeks on the Peninsula as never a human being worked before. The cry of a wounded man would always bring Smalley to his side. The call for men for fatigue always found Smalley. His strength and energy were superhuman. Everyone admired and wondered at him. I saw him on many occasions going round quickly cleaning the rifles of the men who were sleeping, after coming off post. ‘What about a sleep yourself, Smalley?’ I used to ask him; but his only reply was, ‘I’m all right, sir, these poor fellows are tired’.

I remember him before the charge at Lone Pine, covered all over with field dressings, ‘to fix up some of the poor chaps,’ as he put it. He was hit in the stomach going over, and died almost immediately, saying only, ‘Leave me, leave me, I’m done’. And so passed one of the most self-sacrificing, noble, and courageous men who ever wore the Australian uniform.

Wren, E. Randwick to Hargicourt: History of the 3rd Battalion, AIF, Sydney, Ronald G. McDonald (1935)

Edward had been promoted to Lance Corporal for bravery in the field, but he died before the promotion was gazetted.

A notation on the service record of 975 Private Edward Joseph Smalley states tersely, ‘body not recovered’. Like so many of the missing, his name is among those listed on the Lone Pine Memorial.”

Image

The Sydney Morning Herald, 25 April 1927, Page 8.

It is becoming more evident during the course of my research that sometimes the Australian War Memorial (AWM) Roll of Honour records, by virtue of the data provided by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC), do not correctly state the: 1) place of death; 2) date of death; and/or 3) cause of death, for those who have died during wartime and were buried at sea.

I have written previously about the burials of those who die whilst at sea and in those cases the “official” record matches the historical record. However, there has been discovered an instance where these two versions of recorded events differ quite dramatically.

In research material published by Heather Ford, in issue No. 40 (September 2012) of Digger magazine, published and distributed in Australia by the Families and Friends of the First AIF Inc, she writes about the burial at sea of No. 2093 Pte. DONOVAN Patrick whilst being repatriated home wounded to Australia on-board H.M.A.T. (also H.M.A.H.S.) Kanowna. Now normally this would not be such a significant event as many soldiers, sailors and civilians during WW1 where upon their death were buried at sea when the distance to a port of call was too great. But as is the case with Pte. DONOVAN the “official” record of his place of death is significantly different to that of his actual place of death.

Pte. DONOVAN had suffered greatly during his short time in service. He was sick twice, in quick succession, whilst stationed at Gallipoli with Abdominal Pains (19/6/15) and Rheumatism (30/6/15). He was then medically evacuated to Cairo with a G.S.W. (gun shot wound) to his groin on 13/8/1915. In March 1916 he rejoined the Battalion and was posted to France where very quickly he was again medically evacuated, this time to England, and admitted to hospital due to “insantiy” in June 1916. After many months in a mental hospital in England Pte. DONOVAN was discharged from the AIF as suffering from “Delusional Insanity” and embarked on H.M.A.H.S. Kanowna on 9/9/1916 at Southampton.

The Kanowna sailed from England down the cost of Europe, through the Mediterranean Sea and Suez Canal, and on to the port of Suez, where more patients were embarked before their journey onto Colombo (Sri Lanka). It is during this leg of their journey to Colombo that Pte. DONOVAN dies on-board the Kanowna on 27/9/1916 and is buried at sea. Disturbingly, in his service record there is no information to state how he actually died or what he actually died of, although the role of honour “official” record states illness. Also, it would appear that his death was not reported until 31/10/1916 when the Final Voyage Report was submitted in Sydney. Interestingly, even ‘The AIF Project‘, a source I’ve often come to rely upon in the past, only states his “fate” as Returned to Australia 9 September 1916.

The really disappointing outcome from his death is that in his service record there are numerous letters and reports backwards and forwards between his family and officials, and between officials themselves inquiring about his personal possession (whilst still important) but none of these inquire as to his outcome (what he died of or where he was “buried”). To confuse the matter even more his name appears on the Villers-Bretonneux Memorial in France even though he didn’t actually die in France, and the location of his “burial” is known, albeit at sea.

Interestingly, this appears to not be an isolated problem. I have found another example of a 3rd Battalion soldier (i’m sure there are probably more) who was “buried at sea” but the official record states otherwise: Lieut CADELL, Thomas Leonard – Buried at sea on 22 June 1915, but official record states Gallipoli Peninsula, Turkey as place of death and his name appears on the Lone Pine Memorial. http://www.anzacs.org/pages/AOcadell.html https://www.awm.gov.au/research/people/roll_of_honour/person.asp?p=520626

In Chapter XIV, Section IV, Volume III – Special Problems and Services of the Australian Army Medical Services Office History, Colonel A. G. Butler records details of the transport of soldiers by sea. He writes in the section titled Mortality “of the 5,444 members of the A.I.F. who died from disease or accidental injury outside Australia, 482 died at sea”, now this does necessarily mean “buried at sea”, just that succumb to their wound, injuries or illness at sea. Whilst there are quite details records of the causes of death of soldiers for Kanowna’s sister ship Karoola, Colonel Butler records specifically that “[f]or the Kanowna detailed statistical records are non-existent” so this means the cause of Pte. Donovan’s death may never been known.

Armistice

The next day [19 May 1915] everybody was amazed to see a flag appear – white with red crescent – out in the Turks’ trenches. Three Turks climbed out and approached the Australian line slowly but determinedly carrying this flag. A party from our side carrying a red cross flag almost immediately advanced to meet the strangers, when the Turks expressed a wish to bury their dead.

The order “cease fire” was passed along the line, and the Turkish stretcher-bearers began to collect their wounded. However, the Australians’ suspicions being aroused, they were fired upon. Again came orders to “cease fire”, and the enemy came out again. The orders now were not to resume hostilities until 7 p.m. unless precipitated by the enemy. The watching Australians noticed that some of the Turks not bothering about the wounded were collecting rifles and ammunition. This action was quickly checked by firing shots over the heads of every Turk who touched a rifle or ammunition.

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3rd BATTALION, A.I.F.

A GLOWING HISTORY.

(BY F. M. CUTLACK.)

Aptly enough for Anzac Day, Captain Eric Wren, late of the 3rd Battalion, A.I.F., has written his history of the battalion under the title of “From Randwick to Hargicourt”. (pub-lished by Ronald G. McDonald, Sydney). General Sir Nevill Smyth, V.C., writes a foreword, and there are messages of congratulation to survivors of the old battalion from the late Major-General Sir Horace Walker (who formerly commanded the 1st Division) and Brigadier-General Lesulle (formerly com- mander of 1st Brigade). Captain Wren has had to collect the material for this story from many sources within and without the ranks of the unit. It might, have been written, he states, sixteen years ago, but for good and sufficient reasons was not. He thinks that the story can now be told better. In the “mellowed perspective” of twenty years after; and certainly this writer, who has read many war reminiscences and unit histories, is convinced that It could not be told better than Captain Wren has told it here.

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